FOUR STAGES FOR ENLIGHTENMENT (categories of venerables)

The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahat.

These four stages are Sotapanna, Sakadagami, Anagami, and Arahat. The Buddha referred to people who are at one of these four stages as noble people (ariya-puggala) and the community of such persons as the noble sangha (ariya-sangha).
The teaching of the four stages of enlightenment is a central element of the early Buddhist schools, including the Theravada school of Buddhism, which still survives.

 

The First Stage – Skt srotaapanna (The stream-winner):

Sotāpanna (Pali) or Srotāpanna (Sanskrit; ch: rùliú 入流, Tib. rgyun zhugs[1]) means in the Buddhism “stream-winner” and refers to a person, who has eradicated the first three fetters (sanyojanas) of the mind. Sotapanna literally means “one who entered (āpanna) the stream (sota)”, after a simile that compares attaining nibbāna with crossing a stream and reaching the farthest shore. Sotapannaship is the first of the four stages of enlightenment.

Venerable Hsuan Hua continues, “The first fruit is that of Srotāpanna, a Sanskrit word which means “One Who Has Entered the Flow.” He opposes the flow of common people’s six dusts and enters the flow of the sage’s dharma-nature. Entering the flow means entering the state of the accomplished sage of the Small Vehicle.”

: (1) the state of the “stream-enterer”—i.e., a convert (sotapanna)—achieved by overcoming false beliefs and doubts regarding the Buddha, the teaching (dhamma), and the order (sangha … (100 of 309 words

The first moment of the attainment is termed the path of stream-entry (sotāpatti-magga), which cuts off the first three fetters. The person who experiences it is called a stream-winner (sotāpanna).[3][4] The Sotāpanna is said to attain an intuitive grasp of dhamma(right view) and has complete confidence in the Three Jewels (Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha). The Sotapanna is said to have “opened the eye of the Dharma” (dhammacakkhu), because they have realized that whatever arises will cease (impermanence). Their conviction in the true dhamma would be unshakable.

 

The three fetters which the Sotāpanna eradicates are: [5][6]

  1. Identity view – The speculative view that a so-called self exists in the five aggregates (physical forms, feelings/sensations, perception, mental formations and consciousness) is eradicated because the Sotāpanna gains insight into the selfless nature of the aggregates.
  2. Skeptical Doubt – Doubt about the Buddha and his teaching is eradicated because the Sotāpanna personally experiences the true nature of reality through insight, and this insight confirms the accuracy of the Buddha’s teaching.
  3. Clinging to rites and rituals – Clinging to the view that one becomes pure simply through performing ritual or rigid moralism, such as praying to God for deliverance, slaughtering animals for sacrifice, ablutions, etc. is eradicated because the Sotāpanna realizes that rites and ritual are nothing more than an obstructive tradition, repetitious rites and dead dogmas; Deliverance can be won only through the practice of the Noble Eightfold Path.

 

The stage of the stream-winner indicates one who has entered the stream of the sages, in other words, the river leading to nirvana. At this stage, one has eradicated the illusions of thought in the threefold world.

The second rank refers to those who have attained the first stage, that of the stream-winner (Skt srota-apanna ), or one who has entered the metaphorical river leading to nirvana; and to those the second stage, that of the once-returner (sakridagamin), or one who must undergo only one more rebirth in the human world before entering nirvana.

A first type of holy person, called a sotāpanna-puggala (“stream-winner”), is one who will attain Nirvana (the supreme goal of Buddhist thought and practice) after no more than seven rebirths.

 

The Second Stage – Sakridagamin:

El que ha alcanzado el Segundo nivel monacal the stage of the once-returner (sakridagamin),

Sakridagamin: El que ha alcanzado el Segundo nivel monacal. Renacerá una vez má antes de alcanzar el Nirvana. A quien todavía le quedan siete muertes y siete nacimientos.

 

At the stage of the once-returner, one has eradicated six of the nine illusions of desire in the world of desire. Due to the remaining illusions, one will be born next in the realm of heavenly beings and then once again in the human world before entering nirvana; hence the name once-returner.

…sakadagamin), who will be reborn only once in this realm, a state attained by diminishing lust, hatred, and illusion

Another type of holy person is termed a sakadāgamin (“once-returner”), or one who is destined to be reborn in the human world only once more before reaching Nirvana

Sakradagamin) (Sánscrito). Literalmente: “El que recibirá nacimiento (sólo) una vez más” antes de alcanzar el Nirvâna; el que ha entrado en los senderos segundo y cuarto que conducen al Nirvâna y ha casi obtenido la perfección.

 

The Third Stage – Anagamin (The non-returner):

Anagamin: El que ha alcanzado el tercer nivel de la vida monacal y ha eliminado los nueve grados de ilusión del pensamiento0 en el reino del deseo
Someone at the stage of the non-returner has eliminated the other three illusions of desire and will not be reborn in the world of desire.

The third rank refers to those who have attained the third stage, that of non-returner (anagamin), or one who will never be reborn in this world.

the “nonreturner” (anagamin), who, after death, will be reborn in a higher heaven, where he will become an arhat, a state attained by overcoming sensuous desire and ill will, in addition to the attainments…

Símbolos o conceptos simbólicos utilizado en esoterismo o religiones.

Tercer grado o etapa de iniciación final cuando el hombre ya no experimente el deseo de renacer a la vida terrenal. Es el que “no retorna” según el budismo. Las dos etapas anteriores son las del que “penetra en la corriente” y del que “retorna una sola vez”.

El anagamin es el individuo que ha avanzado más allá de los niveles del desarrollo espiritual correspondientes a las dos etapas anteriores y que ha superado las cinco cadenas que sujetan a los humanos a la esfera de los sentidos: la creencia en una entidad permanente; la duda; la creencia en el valor de las normas y los ritos; el deseo sensual y la mala voluntad.

En el canon pali se habla frecuentemente de esta etapa aludiendo a palabras del propio Buda. Este concepto también aparece entre los sarvastivadines y en el Abhidharmakosa-sastra se presenta como la tercera etapa de las cuatro que comprende el sendero espiritual. Por el contrario en el mahayana aparece como el individuo que desea retornar a la vida para prestar su ayuda a otras personas que aún se encuentran en la esfera de la sensualidad.

Anagamin

Anagamin (Sanskrit) [from a not + agamin from a-gam to come, proceed toward] One who does not come; in Southern or Theravada Buddhism, a “never returner,” one who will be reborn on earth no more — “unless he so desires in order to help mankind” (VS 88). The third stage of the fourfold path that leads to nirvana, the path of arhatship. See also

 

The Fourth and Last Stage – Arhat:

(Sanskrit: “one who is worthy”) , Pali arahant

In the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha) arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) signified a spiritual practitioner who had—to use an expression common in the tipitaka—”laid down the burden”—and realised the goal of nibbana, the culmination of the spiritual life (brahmacarya). Such a person, having removed all causes for future becoming, is not reborn after biological death into any samsaric realm.

in Buddhism, a perfected person, one who has gained insight into the true nature of existence and has achieved nirvana (spiritual enlightenment). The arhat, having freed himself from the bonds of desire, will not be reborn.

The state of an arhat is considered in the Theravada tradition to be the proper goal of a Buddhist.

Arhat al que no resta más que una existencia para convertirse en Buda

Arhat: Una de las fruiciones del Camino de cultivo. Los Arhates han logrado la cesación del nacimiento y muerte involuntario-fisio. La palabra tiene tres significados: ¡) digno de las ofrendas 2) matador de los ladrones (los ladrones son las aflicciones y las efusiones exteriores) 3) libre del nacimiento.

 

At the stage of arhat, one has eliminated all the illusions of thought and desire in the threefold world and has freed oneself from transmigration in the threefold world or the six paths.

 

The fourth rank refers to those who have eliminated the illusions of thought and desire and attained the fourth and highest stage, that of arhat.

ARHAT = ARIHANTA

1) Ari, meaning enemies, and 2) hanta, meaning destroyer. Therefore, Arihanta means a destroyer of the enemies. These enemies are not people, but rather inner desires known as passions. These includes anger, ego, deception, and greed.

The word “arahan” literally means “worthy one”[3] (an alternative folk etymology is “foe-destroyer” or “vanquisher of enemies”[4]) and constitutes the highest grade of noble person—ariya-puggala—described by the Buddha as recorded in the Pali canon. The word was used (as it is today in the liturgy of Theravada Buddhism) as an epithet of the Buddha himself as well as of his enlightened disciples. The most widely recited liturgical reference is perhaps the homage: Namo Tassa Bhagavato, Arahato, Samma-sammbuddhassa.Homage to him, the Blessed One, the Worthy One, the perfectly enlightened Buddha.

Variations

  • Bengali: orhot/orhotto
  • Burmese: ရဟန္တာ (yahanda; IPA: [yahá̃ dà]; MLCTS: ra. hanta)
  • Chinese (ēluóhàn, luóhàn); rarer terms:

 

Arhat or arahant (Pali), in the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Jainism and Buddhism), signified a spiritual practitioner who had – to use an expression common in the tipitaka – “laid down the burden”, realising the goal of nirvana, the culmination of the spiritual life (brahmacarya). Such a person, having removed all causes for future becoming, is not reborn after biological death into any samsaric realm. In the Pali Canon, the word is sometimes used as a synonym for tathagata.[1]

A Tirthankar is a special sort of arhat, a person who has totally conquered base sensibilities such as anger, pride, deceit, or desire.